If someone lives in an economically depressed place, they were probably born there. And the presence of people who have local ties — preferences to live in their birth places — leads to smaller migration elasticities. Smaller migration elasticities lead to lower equilibrium real wages in depressed places, and local ties make real wages more sensitive to demand shocks, a form of hysteresis. Local ties can persist for centuries. Low migration elasticities also suggest that place based policies will cause smaller distortions in depressed places since few people are willing to move there. Higher migration elasticities in newly productive places imply that place based policies will induce migration and increase aggregate productivity.
The earnings of young adults who live in the same neighborhoods as their parents recover faster after a job displacement than those who live farther away. The earnings of these workers recover in around six years while workers living farther away suffer permanent declines. Workers with children of their own drive these divergent earnings outcomes. Different job search durations, differences in mobility after job displacements, housing transfers, and ex-ante differences between workers are unlikely explanations. Parental employment networks could contribute to our findings, though we find little evidence that adult children find work in their parents' industries.
Formerly: Family Ties and Worker Displacement
Inequality in U.S. housing prices and rents both declined in the mid-20th century, even as home-ownership rates rose. Subsequently, housing-price inequality has risen to pre-War levels, while rent inequality has risen less. Combining both measures, we see inequality in housing consumption equivalents mirroring patterns in income across both space and time, according to an income elasticity of housing demand just below one. These patterns occur mainly within cities, and are not explained by observed changes in dwelling characteristics or locations. Instead, recent increases in housing inequality are driven most by changes in the relative value of locations, seen especially through land.